Plant growth, development, and reproduction depend on the nutrient nitrogen. Although nitrogen is one of the most abundant elements on earth, plants cannot directly get nitrogen from the atmosphere or the earth’s crust. This makes nitrogen deficiency one of the most widespread nutritional issues impacting plants globally.
- Use of nitrogen for plants
- How to spot nitrogen deficiency in plants
- Natural source of nitrogen
- Benefits of nitrogen
- Effects of too much nitrogen
- Why earth’s soil is losing an essential protein building block
Use of nitrogen for plants
Nitrogen is a component of the chlorophyll molecule, which gives plants their green color and is necessary for photosynthesis, the process through which plants produce food. Chlorosis, or the overall yellowing of the plant, is a sign of low nitrogen levels. Older growth frequently turns yellower than the new growth because nitrogen can travel around in the plant.
Additionally, the main constituent of plant protoplasm is nitrogen. The translucent material called protoplasm is what makes up cells’ live tissue. It is essential for fruit set quality improvement, floral differentiation, quick shoot growth, and flower bud health. It also serves the other minerals as a catalyst.
Plants convert carbon dioxide and water into starches and sugars through a process known as photosynthesis. The plant eats these sugars and starches.
How to spot nitrogen deficiency in plants
Nitrogen deficiency causes serious health problems for plants. Defects develop when minerals like carbon seep into the soil and hinder roots from obtaining it.
Most noticeably, leaves will begin to wilt and become yellow—discoloration results from a lack of chlorophyll, reducing photosynthesis’s effectiveness.
Inhibited leaf growth leads to early leaf death due to a nitrogen deficit. Plants restrict the development of their numerous tissues to concentrate on root growth and get nitrogen.
Natural source of nitrogen
Finding natural sources of nitrogen for your garden is an easy thing to do. And if you want to keep your garden organic, here are some natural nitrogen sources for your plants.
You can purchase alfalfa meals at your neighborhood garden center. Although it doesn’t provide as much nitrogen as the blood meal, an alfalfa meal is still a fantastic option for gardeners.
When using it in your garden, adhere to the application instructions on the packaging. Typically, you add it to the top layer of soil and deeply water it to help it get to your plants’ roots.
Bone & blood meal
Both bone meal and blood meal are available at any nearby garden center. These fertilizers are excellent ways to give your garden plants more nitrogen and phosphorus.
You can make your bone and blood meal in addition to purchasing it. Simply save bones and make broth out of it; after cooling it, you can feed it to your plants. Both contain a lot of nitrogen and should be appropriately used on your plants.
One of the simplest ways to add nitrogen to your garden soil is by using blood meal. It’s high in nitrogen, so if you add some to the soil surface surrounding your plants and give them plenty of water, your plants will quickly experience a big boost.
Does using blood or bone meal have any disadvantages? Unfortunately, yes. The scent of blood and bone meal is the main issue. Suppose you’re concerned about huge animals like bears visiting your garden because it draws them. In that case, an alfalfa meal would be the perfect substitute.
Coffee grounds contain about 5% nitrogen by weight and can be used in fresh or composted gardens. You might not think you have enough coffee grounds if you only brew the occasional cup to see a difference in the nitrogen levels in your soil.
Here’s an idea. Ask neighborhood coffee shops to conserve coffee grounds for a day or two. Many will comply if you explain that you’re a local gardener looking to improve your soil.
Planting cover crops in your garden is an excellent way to increase soil’s nitrogen content. They are often referred to as “green manure.” You might plant cover crops after the growing season, but typically you plant cover crops as part of your crop rotation. Alfalfa, clover, peas, and other legumes are available options.
Simply by growing in the soil, cover crops help to enhance the earth. After the growing season, till the cover crops into the soil to allow them to break down and enrich the soil with additional nutrients.
An additional natural source of nitrogen is fish emulsion. Liquid fish emulsion is available in stores, but you must dilute it because the nitrogen content is too high and can burn your plants. Additionally, you may attempt to produce your fish emulsion.
In addition to having plenty of other vitamins and trace minerals that your plants require to grow, fish emulsion not only has nitrogen. Most fish emulsion bottles have an NPK ratio of 5:1:1, and they also specify additional micronutrients that your plants require, such as:
Do you cut your grass every week? If so, you have a free natural source of nitrogen! The grass is so simple to utilize even if you don’t compost it, and it contains 3% nitrogen by weight when composted.
Grass clippings also function as mulch and eventually break down in the soil. Although it takes a lot longer, this strategy is generally free if you’re trying to improve the quality of your soil.
Unbelievable as it may seem, human urine is one of the best natural nitrogen sources. Additionally, it includes trace minerals that promote plant growth. Urine typically contains 5% nitrogen by weight, but you must dilute it before using it on your plants. Use five parts water to one part pee to dilute the urine.
If you have trees in your backyard, you also have leaves, one of the best natural nitrogen sources. You might be surprised by what you can accomplish with fall leaves; leaves are helpful in the garden. They help with aeration, plant nitrogen addition, and serving as an organic mulch.
You may incorporate fall leaves into your soil when the gardening season is through. By spring rolls around, they will have broken down and added nitrogen.
One of my favorite natural nitrogen sources is manure from chickens, rabbits, cows, horses, goats, and sheep. This is mainly because I keep hens. Between 4 and 9 percent of its weight is nitrogen, which is typically relatively high.
It’s important to note that, except for rabbit manure, manure must be aged and composted before being utilized in your garden. If you don’t compost and age these materials, they’ll burn your plants because of their high nitrogen content.
Make sure to compost chicken dung because it contains the most nitrogen of any animal excrement.
Making manure tea is a quick way to give your plants a nitrogen boost if you have animal manure. You can add manure to a bucket along with water, but you cannot use cat or dog manure. After letting it soak, the water will turn into manure tea.
To water and nourish your garden, use manure tea. If you want to offer your garden plants more minor boosts, like to all of them, you can dilute them even more.
Consider planting beans if you’re seeking a natural way to gradually add nitrogen to the soil. The ability of plants to absorb nutrients from the ground is well known. Still, many people are unaware that plants may also contribute certain nutrients to the soil. Without exerting effort or using any fertilizers, you enrich the soil with nitrogen when you plant beans.
Because of this, broccoli, cabbage, or other plants that need a lot of nitrogen make excellent companion plants for beans. So, give it a try and watch what happens with green beans everywhere!
Benefits of nitrogen
Here are four benefits nitrogen has for plants.
Aids in the synthesis of chlorophyll
Ever ponder the color green in plants? The chlorophyll molecule in plants contains nitrogen, which gives them their inherently green glow.
In addition, chlorophyll is essential for photosynthesis because it converts red and blue light waves from the sun into food and energy for plants.
Supports the development of essential plant tissues
Plant protoplasm’s building blocks include nitrogen. This translucent substance catalyzes the minerals needed for plant growth and is essentially the living stuff found inside plant cells. Rapid shoot development, flower differentiation, flower bud vitality, and the caliber of the plant’s fruits or vegetables are all attributed to protoplasm.
As a member of this “green team,” nitrogen is essential for providing all plants with the energy they need to grow from the ground up. This includes the formation of roots, trunks, stems, vines, leaves, and flowers. Additionally, nitrogen is essential for seed germination, fruit and vegetable development, and other stages of the plant reproductive cycle (the plant equivalent of giving birth).
Strengthens plant DNA
As you know, DNA plays a crucial role in determining our genetic makeup. You might be surprised to learn that nitrogen plays a vital role in the nucleic acid in DNA.
The genetic code is preserved in the nucleus of a plant thanks to nitrogen. Crop survival depends on robust, flexible DNA. Without responding genes, a fungus or virus can destroy an entire crop. When reseeding, strong DNA also aids in the emergence of advantageous features; for instance, natural selection aids in producing larger blooms, juicier tomatoes, and redder roses!
Plants use photosynthesis to convert sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water into sugars and starches that they then use as fuel.
The process depends on nitrogen. Nitrogen is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into plant nourishment since it is a constituent of the chlorophyll molecule. Nitrogen-rich plants grow more rampantly and engage in higher rates of photosynthesis.
Effects of too much nitrogen
Excess nitrogen encourages rapid foliage growth, giving your landscape the appearance of a jungle gone wild. Still, it also stunts the development of other plants. Plants may not even create their necessary reproductive organs throughout the growing season as energy for flower growth is diverted to foliage growth.
Burning and salt concentration
Because too much nitrogen draws water away from the plant while leaving salts behind, using a high-nitrogen fertilizer mixture also increases the number of mineral salts in the soil. Dehydration causes the leaves to look burned, which is what happens. Leaf edges wilt and turns brown or yellow. The best action to revitalize the plant is to flush the region with water to remove the excess nitrogen. Although the nitrogen creates the desired huge foliage, if the nitrogen level is left high, you can discover that the fast growth is devastated by leaf burn.
Root growth stunting
High nitrogen soil levels for massive leaf growth strangle the root system underneath. Since they lack the nutrients to use as energy when the elements are directed higher, roots restrict their tendency to spread organically. As a result, the plant may become unstable in its soil position; if it is tall enough, it may also be blown over by strong winds. Stressed roots also encourage illness by attracting soil pathogens. In the end, nitrogen-induced stressors cause harm to the plant’s entire structure, including its leaves and roots.
All of the excess nitrogen in the soil cannot be absorbed by plants. These extra nitrogen levels gradually leak out of the ground through water runoff; when the nitrogen informs from the earth, microbial conversion transforms it into nitrates. As a result of the nitrate levels, drinking water and groundwater become contaminated. High nitrogen levels around plants must be regularly monitored and adjusted for natural harmony due to the damage they cause to the plants and the nearby water supplies.
Why earth’s soil is losing an essential protein building block
Numerous key biological activities require nitrogen, the seventh element on the periodic chart. The fact that nitrogen is becoming more scarce in ecosystems worldwide is, therefore, major news.
“There is a fairly large-scale decline in nitrogen availability that… seems to have started sometime around the early twentieth century and appears to be ongoing,” environmental researcher Rachel Mason.
Most environmental concerns about nitrogen have focused on an overabundance of the element, not a lack of it. “Before I got involved in this work, I would have thought, yeah, nitrogen is a problem because there’s too much of it,” Mason says. “That’s true if you’re talking about agricultural areas and the lakes and oceans downstream from [them].” For example, excess fertilizer in the Gulf of Mexico causes algal blooms that create “dead zones” of very limited biodiversity.
But on land, there’s an entirely different set of problems that drain accessible nitrogen far more quickly than it can be replaced.
One example is the intensive grazing of livestock. “We export cattle full of protein out of grasslands,” Mason says. Just as agricultural regions in California export an incredible amount of water in the form of produce, states with significant beef industries export a lot of the nitrogen from their soil as meat. “In a protein molecule, one atom out of every six is nitrogen,” Mason says.
The lack of nitrogen is becoming a severe problem.
Nitrogen — along with oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur — is necessary for life. For instance, it’s an indispensable part of photosynthesis. “You need nitrogen to produce chlorophyll,” Mason says. It’s a fundamental building block of protein, too.
“Declines in nitrogen availability basically translate into the availability of plant proteins for insect herbivores and grazing mammals. [It] may well have effects on the growth and reproduction of those creatures,” Mason says.
It’s challenging to track how declining levels of available nitrogen have affected livestock productivity because ranchers constantly change livestock genetics to produce more, “but at some point… you might find that they just don’t [get] as much food from their livestock as they used to,” Mason says.
Declining levels of nitrogen are undoubtedly expensive for livestock producers. According to one estimate, ranchers have invested billions of dollars in extra feed to make up for lost protein. There’s also reason to think that insects are suffering from the change in these ecosystems.
One factor behind the so-called insect apocalypse could be dwindling nitrogen availability. We want all the insects to stay because they are essential to our ecosystems.